All posts by Josh Pieper

Improved mjbots labels

For most of mjbots’ existence, all of our products were labeled with a dependable, if lackluster, Brother P-Touch label maker. In line with other packaging improvements, I recently upgraded that labeling setup to bigger, higher resolution, and full color!

This is using an Epson TM-C3500, which I had expected to operate directly from my Linux based test fixtures. However, upon receiving it, discovered that alas only Windows drivers were available. Thankfully, it wasn’t too bad to print from python in a simple way as long as you manually select the media type from the Windows dialogs. Thus I made up a simple Flask app to receive label images over HTTP and print them. That runs on a Windows computer, and the test fixture applications just POST their label images to it.

The qdd100 even has a nifty graphical summary of some of the automated test results graphed on the label.

Since I was hacking on it the bar code URLs are live now too. They show a summary of the test results for each individual unit, although the HTML they produce is pretty minimal even by my standards!

pi3hat python raw CAN-FD

The pi3hat, among other things has 5 CAN-FD ports. You can use them to drive a lot of moteus servos, but they are perfectly fine CAN-FD ports generally. The C++ library has always been able to send and receive arbitrary frames (and recently at arbitrary bitrates), but the python interface was lacking, only exposing a portion of this functionality.

As of version 0.3.11, the python library (pip3 install moteus-pi3hat) now exposes everything you need to be able to send and receive arbitrary CAN frames from any of the ports, as well as configure all the timing options for waiting for responses from slave devices.

This is what a sample usage of raw frames, mixed in with moteus frames, looks like:

# To send a raw CAN, you must manually instantiate a
# 'moteus.Command' and fill in its fields, along with which
# bus to send it on.
raw_message = moteus.Command()
raw_message.raw = True
raw_message.arbitration_id = 0x0405
raw_message.bus = 5 = b'1234'
raw_message.reply_required = False

# A single 'transport.cycle' call's message list can contain a
# mix of "raw" frames and those generated from
# 'moteus.Controller'.
# If you want to listen on a CAN bus without having sent a
# command with 'reply_required' set, you can use the
# 'force_can_check' optional parameter.  It is a 1-indexed
# bitfield listing which additional CAN buses should be
# listened to.

results = await transport.cycle([
   ], force_can_check = (1 << 5))

# If any raw CAN frames are present, the result list will be a
# mix of moteus.Result elements and can.Message elements.
# They each have the 'bus', 'arbitration_id', and 'data'
# fields.
# moteus.Result elements additionally have an 'id' field which
# is the moteus servo ID and a 'values' field which reports
# the decoded response.
for result in results:
    if hasattr(result, 'id'):
        # This is a moteus structure.
        print(f"{time.time():.3f} MOTEUS {result}")
        # This is a raw structure.
        print(f"{time.time():.3f} BUS {result.bus}  " +
              f"ID {result.arbitration_id:x}  DATA {}")

It isn’t the cleanest API, but it does get the job done!

New machine(s) day, more Prusas

This is somewhat belated, but only recently have I actually gotten them all set up in the desired configuration. Welcome to the newest members of the mjbots factory line, another 2 Prusa MK3Ss! That makes 4 total, now all neatly lined up in a row:

The first two have had a greater than 60% duty cycle over the 3 years I’ve had them, and situations kept coming up where I was blocked on 3d printer bandwidth. For now at least that need is sated.

Filtering encoder values in moteus

TLDR: moteus can now filter the encoder, resulting in less audible noise. Use firmware version 2021-04-20 and ‘pip3 install moteus’ version 0.3.19, then re-calibrate to get the benefits.


The moteus controller uses an absolute magnetic encoder to measure the position of the rotor. It uses this knowledge to accurately control the current through the three phases of a brushless motor so that the desired torque is produced, i.e. “field oriented control”. This works well, but has some downsides. One, is that magnetic encoders work by sensing the magnetic field produced by a “sensing magnet” that is somehow affixed to the rotor. This sensing process always introduces some noise, so that the sensed rotor position is never perfect.

Because of this, even if the rotor is perfectly stationary, moteus will constantly be tweaking the phase of the motor current to track the noise. This results in slightly increased power consumption, and more important to most, audible noise as the slight variations in control current can induce vibrations in the phase windings of the motor.

Fortunately, in most applications, the rotor is not actually capable of accelerating with the full bandwidth that the magnetic sensor is capable of sensing. Thus, we can filter it to remove high frequency noise without any loss of performance.


The filter method that moteus uses is an “all-digital phase locked loop“. Formulated in the traditional PLL terminology, this consists of three pieces: a numerically controlled oscillator, a phase detector, and a PI controller.

The “numerically controlled oscillator” is just a counter that tries to “guess” what the encoder is doing by propagating a value forward at an estimated velocity. For an ADPLL in this setup (where our encoder gives us an absolute phase measurement), the “phase detector” just subtracts the measured phase from the estimated phase. The PI controller determines how the estimated oscillator tracks disturbances in the actual encoder frequency.

In my post on automatic torque bandwidth selection for moteus, I derived the necessary equations for determining the torque bandwidth. Here, I’m just going to reference the excellent article by Neil Robertson, “Digital PLL’s” (part 1, and part 2), over at There, he derived the necessary proportional and derivative gains for a given bandwidth and damping ratio:

K_p = 2 \zeta \omega_{3db}

K_i = {\omega_{3db}}^ 2

Where \zeta is the “damping ratio“. For our purposes, we’ll use 1.0, which is known as “critically damped” and is often a good balance between stability and response time.


To see this in action, I ran some experiments on a moteus devkit. I added back in a conditional ability to emit a few bytes of debugging information at the full control rate to the firmware, and used that to emit the encoder value as used by FOC at each control cycle. I made up a script, that can plot the power spectral density in the encoder measurements. This is basically the noise present at any given frequency. When run on an unmodified development kit with no encoder filtering, the result looks like:

Power spectral density of moteus AS5047P encoder in a devkit

This shows that there are peaks in the noise at around 700Hz and 2kHz and after that the noise drops off rather rapidly. Then if we enable filtering at a few different bandwidths, you can see how the plot changes:

Power spectral density of AS5047P with various filter bandwidths configured

The filter bandwidths here varied from 5000 rps (~800Hz) down to 100rps (~15Hz). The filtered noise profiles follow what one would expect for each of the filters.

Audible noise

To measure the combined effect of this and torque bandwidth on audible noise, I switched to a controller attached to an 8108 motor, as I’ve seen those tend to demonstrate more audible noise. The motor had a constant back and forth motion at 0.5Hz for 60s and the result was captured with a studio mic set about 1cm away from the motor. In each test, I ran moteus_tool --calibrate and selected only a torque bandwidth, letting it pick an appropriate encoder bandwidth. For the 100Hz torque bandwidth and above tests, the same position PID values were used, although they needed to be tweaked for stability at the lower bandwidths. I similarly plotted the power spectral density for several filtering values and for silence. The total signal strength measured in negative dB is noted in the label:

It is not shown here, but the unfiltered noise is about the same as the 400Hz one. Thus, the maximum improvement is around 6dB of audible noise. Filtering at 100Hz gives most of that benefit for this motor, with slight improvements beyond that. Most of the audible energy is in the spectrum below 1kHz and there are several frequency bands where the encoder does not appear to be the dominant source of audible noise, as all options are equivalent in those.

For comparison purposes, the ODrive firmware defaults to filtering both the torque and encoder at around 160Hz (1000rps).

moteus_tool integration

As of version 0.3.19, moteus_tool has support for configuring the encoder bandwidth during calibration. By default, it will select a value appropriate for the selected torque bandwidth, or you can specify it manually with --encoder-bw-hz.

moteus direction configuration

Since the first public release, moteus has always calibrated motors so that a positive command is equivalent to a fixed sequencing of the phase wires. That means that depending upon which order you solder the phase wires, a positive commanded velocity will result in the motor spinning either clockwise or counterclockwise.

As it turns out, since moteus has an absolute encoder that is immune to such vagarities, it is much more convenient to normalize the direction of rotation around the encoder rather than the phase wires. As of release 2021-04-26, and moteus_tool 0.3.22, that is exactly what moteus does.

Now by default, moteus_tool will attempt to calibrate the motor such that a positive command results in a positive encoder value (this will be clockwise rotation when looking at the front of the motor / back of the moteus board). If the firmware is too old, it may not be able to do this, in which case it will emit an error.

You can also, use the new ‘--cal-invert' option, which will have moteus calibrate the motor such that a positive command results in the encoder moving in the negative direction. For some existing deployed systems, you must use this option if you want the calibrated motor to have the same sense of direction as before (even with old firmware). As before, if this is not possible because the firmware is too old to support the necessary configuration, an error is emitted.

Auxiliary encoders for moteus

The moteus controller uses an absolute magnetic encoder to sense the position of the rotor in order to conduct field oriented control of the motor. In many applications, this sensing is also sufficient to measure the output as well, particularly in direct drive applications. However, if the controller is driving the output through a gear reduction, multiple turns of the input are necessary to make one turn on the output. At power on, this results in an ambiguity, where the controller doesn’t know where the output is.

There are a couple of possible solutions to this, one is to do like the quad A1 does, and have a “known turn on position”. Another would be to have a rigid end stop and use a homing procedure on startup. Yet another would be to have a non-backdrivable mechanism and remember in the host application how many revolutions had been taken.

Auxiliary encoders

What I’m going to cover here is yet another solution to this problem, an auxiliary encoder. In this approach, a second absolute encoder is used to measure the position at the output directly, thus directly resolving all ambiguity. All of the production moteus controllers have had a, to date unused, connector named ABS which has pins intended for I2C on it. As of revision 2021-04-09, moteus can now use these pins to read the position from an AS5048B absolute magnetic encoder.

After reading, it uses the values for two purposes. First, it reports the measured value out over both the diagnostic and register interface, so that host applications can use it. It also can be optionally used to initialize the value of “unwrapped_position” at startup.

Setting it up

Getting an auxiliary encoder working is pretty easy. First, you need to wire something up. If you don’t already have hardware, you can use these cables from amazon, and this breakout board from digikey. Here’s a photo of those connected up with with a .1″ connector in between.

The pinout on the moteus board is described in the reference manual:

  • Pin 1: 3.3V (closest to ABS label)
  • Pin 2: SCL
  • Pin 3: SDA
  • Pin 4: GND

Then you connect it to the moteus (while off) and install the breakout board facing a magnet. Here, I made a simple 3d printed belt reducer:

Now we can go into tview and configure things. First, we use the config abs_port.mode from the reference manual, and set it to the value for an AS5048B (1). Then we will configure an offset using abs_port.position_offset, and finally set the position to be set from this encoder on startup with servo.rezero_from_abs.

And that’s all that is necessary!

Using it

At this point, the current value of the encoder can be read at in tview at 'abs_port.position' or register 0x006 as documented in the reference manual!

Here’s a video showing a bit more detail:

New available limits in moteus firmware

Some of the new features in the moteus 2021-04-09 firmware release are new limits that can make the overall system more robust to faults or environmental conditions.

Velocity limiting

config: servo.max_velocity

Like the position limits, there now is a configurable velocity limit. If the motor is moving faster than this limit in either direction, then the applied torque will be limited, eventually to a value of 0. This can be used to reduce the likelihood of runaway behavior in systems where high speeds are not expected.

moteus development kits come with this value set to 10 revolutions per second. It can be easily changed in tview.

Power limiting

config: servo.max_power_W

This limit throttles the available PWM when the overall power applied to the motor exceeds this configured value. By default it is set to 450W, slightly less than the moteus’s rated power of 500W. This limit is intended to reduce the likelihood of damaging the controller through an over-power situation.